Adverse Analytical Finding
Report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved testing entity that identifies in a doping control sample the presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or evidence of the use of a prohibited method. An adverse analytical finding does not necessarily lead to an anti-doping rule violation, since an athlete may have a Therapeutic Use Exemption for this particular substance. An adverse analytical finding may also correspond to a measurement performed on an athlete as part of a longitudinal study.
Anabolic Steroids
Anabolic steroids help build muscle initially and are used in sports that require strength and speed. They may also improve an athlete's recovery time.
Anti-Doping Rule Violation
Determination that one of the following rule violations listed in the Code has occurred:
  • The presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete's bodily specimen;
  • Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method;
  • Refusing, or failing without compelling justification, to submit to sample collection after notification, as authorized in applicable anti-doping rules or otherwise evading sample collection;
  • Violation of applicable requirements regarding athlete availability for out-of-competition testing, including failure to provide whereabouts information and missed tests which are declared based on reasonable rules;
  • Tampering, or attempting to tamper, with any part of doping control;
  • Possession of prohibited substances and methods;
  • Trafficking in any prohibited substance or prohibited method;
  • Administration or attempted administration of a prohibited substance or prohibited method to any athlete, or assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, covering up or any other type of complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation or any attempted violation.
Athlete Support Personnel
Any coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, official, medical or paramedical personnel, parent or any other person working with treating or assisting an athlete participating in or preparing for sports competition.
Athlete Whereabouts Information
Information provided by or on behalf of an athlete which details the athlete's location on a daily basis in order to assist with out-of-competition testing.
Blood Doping
The administration of blood, red blood cells and related blood products to an athlete, which may be preceded by withdrawal of blood from the athlete who continues to train in a blood-depleted state.
Copenhagen Declaration
The Copenhagen Declaration on Anti-Doping in Sport (Copenhagen Declaration) is a political document through which governments signal their intention to adopt the World Anti-Doping Code through the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport. The Copenhagen Declaration was finalized by governments at the second World Conference on Doping in Sport in Copenhagen in March 2003.
Court of Arbitration for Sport
Institution which is independent of any sports organization and provides for services in order to facilitate the settlement of sport-related disputes through arbitration or mediation by means of procedural rules adapted to the specific needs of the sports world. CAS is often referred to as "sport's supreme court."
Diuretics
Diuretics remove the excess water from the body. They are used in sports where the athletes are categorized by their body weight. The use of diuretics can lead to severe dehydration, loss of essential nutrients and death. Plus, diuretics are used to help an athlete make weight or mask other prohibited substances.
Doping
The occurrence of one or more of the following anti-doping rule violations:
  • The Presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in an Athlete's bodily Specimen.
  • Use or Attempted Use of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method.
  • Refusing, or failing without compelling justification, to submit to Sample collection after notification as authorized in applicable anti-doping rules or otherwise evading Sample collection.
  • Violation of applicable requirements regarding Athlete availability for Out-of-Competition Testing including failure to provide required whereabouts information and missed tests which are declared based on reasonable rules.
  • Tampering or Attempting to tamper, with any part of Doping Control.
  • Possession of Prohibited Substances and Methods.
  • Trafficking in any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.
  • Administration or Attempted administration of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method to any Athlete, or assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, covering up or any other type of complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation or any Attempted violation.
Doping Control
Process including test distribution planning, sample collection and handling, laboratory analysis, therapeutic use exemptions, results management, hearings and appeals.
Doping Control Officer (DCO)
Official who has been trained and authorized by USADA with delegated responsibility for an athlete's sample collection.
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Erythropoietin is a synthetic hormone that stimulates the body's production of red blood cells: Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body. Therefore, EPO can increase the ability of the body to transport oxygen to the body and enhance performance in many sports.
HGH
Human Growth Hormone
International Federation (IF)
International non-governmental organization administering one or more sports at global level.
Marker
Compound, group of compounds or biological parameters that indicates the use of a prohibited substance or prohibited method.
Masking Agent
Masking agents are a prohibited class of substances. A product that has the potential to impair the excretion of a prohibited substance. They conceal the substances present in samples used in doping control.
Metabolite
Any substance produced by a biotransformation process.
Non-Analytical Positive
Terminology sometimes used to describe an anti-doping rule violation other than the presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete's bodily specimen.
Prohibited List
List identifying the substances and methods prohibited in sport. The Prohibited List is one of the four WADA International Standards and is mandatory for signatories to the World Anti-Doping Code.
Results Management
Process for the pre-hearing administration of potential anti-doping rule violations. This process notably includes the initial review of the adverse analytical finding (determination of whether an applicable therapeutic use exemption has been granted, notification of the athlete as regards his or her right to request the B-sample analysis) and the possible imposition of a provisional suspension.
Sample/Specimen
Any biological material collected for the purposes of doping control.
Stimulants
An agent, especially a chemical agent such as caffeine, that temporarily arouses or accelerates physiological or organic activity.
Strict Liability Principle
The principle of strict liability means that an anti-doping rule violation occurs whenever a prohibited substance (or its metabolites or markers) is found in the bodily specimen of an athlete, whether or not the athlete intentionally or unintentionally used a prohibited substance or was negligent or otherwise at fault.
Testing
Parts of the doping control process involving test distribution planning, sample collection, sample handling, and sample transport to the laboratory.
Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE)
Permission granted to an athlete by an Anti-Doping Organization to use, for therapeutic purposes, a substance or method included in the Prohibited List.
THG
Tetrahydrogestrinone, an anabolic steroid.
UNESCO Convention
The International Convention against Doping in Sport (UNESCO Convention) was developed by governments under the aegis of UNESCO and unanimously adopted by UNESCO General Conference on October 19, 2005. It is currently being ratified by governments individually. It is a legal tool enabling governments to align domestic policy with the World Anti-Doping Code.
WADA
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is the international independent organization created in 1999 to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against doping in sport in all its forms at the international level. The Agency is composed and funded equally by the Olympic Movement and governments of the world. Its key activities include scientific research, education, out-of competition testing, and development of anti-doping capacities and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code.
World Anti-Doping Code
The World Anti-Doping Code (Code) is the core document that provides the harmonized framework for anti-doping policies, rules, and regulations within sport organizations and among public authorities.